February 15, 2010

rrb secunderabad large recruitment notification


Centralized Employment Notice No 02/2010 for NTPC(Graduate)

Today secunderabad railway recruitment borad released centralised notification with lot of openings (nearly 5000) , your can get the details of rrb secunderabad centralised notifiation in today's employment news paper

closing date 17.03.2010 up to 17.30

vacncies List

1. Commercial Apprentice --- 852

age : 18-33

Education: A University Degree or its equivalent. Diploma in Rail Transport and Management from the Institute of Rail Transport will be an additional desirable qualification.

2. Traffic Apprentice ---

3. Enquiry Cum Reservation Clerk

4. Goods gaurds

5 Junior Accounts Assistant cum - Typist

6. Sr Clerk Cum Typist ---580

More details download the doc



February 10, 2010

Difference between .NET Remoting and ASP.NET web services

Difference between .NET Remoting and ASP.NET web services

ASP.NET Web Services.NET Remoting
Protocol Can be accessed only over HTTPCan be accessed over any protocol (including TCP, HTTP, SMTP and so on)
State ManagementWeb services work in a stateless environmentProvide support for both stateful and stateless environments through Singleton and SingleCall objects
Type SystemWeb services support only the datatypes defined in the XSD type system, limiting the number of objects that can be serializedUsing binary communication, .NET Remoting can provide support for rich type system
Interoperability Web services support interoperability across platforms, and are ideal for heterogeneous environments.NET remoting requires the client be built using .NET, enforcing homogenous environment.
Reliability Highly reliable due to the fact that Web services are always hosted in IISCan also take advantage of IIS for fault isolation. If IIS is not used, application needs to provide plumbing for ensuring the reliability of the application.
Extensibility Provides extensibility by allowing us to intercept the SOAP messages during the serialization and deserialization stages.Very extensible by allowing us to customize the different components of the .NET remoting framework.
Ease-of-Programming Easy-to-create and deployComplex to program.

February 4, 2010


(A Govt, of India Society, Ministry of power)


Last date of receipt of Application: 19-Feb-2010

Central Power Research Institute is a premier National body under Ministry of Power, Government of India, promoting applied research in Power System Technology Development. It has several laboratories and state-of-art facilities for evaluation of Electrical Materials and performance of Power Equipment. It also acts as the National Testing & Certification Authority and the apex body for initiating and coordinating Research and Development.

As a part of the research initiative of CPRI, Senior/Junior Research Fellowship Programme is being launched. Under this programme a Senior/Junior Research Fellow will work full time at CPRI’s Centre for Collaborative & Advanced Research (CCAR) on a research theme/project for two years (extendable up to six months). The identified projects are given in Annexure – I. Necessary laboratory, computational and Library facilities shall be provided.

General Information

Minimum eligibility: SRF: Post Graduate in Engineering with first class in the relevant area of specialization with consistently high level of academic record and aptitude for research.
JRF: Graduate in Engineering / Masters Degree in Science, with first class in the relevant branch of Engineering / Science with consistently high level of academic record and aptitude for research.

Selection: Based on Written test/ Interview and past record.

Duration: Duration of research project will be two years with a provision of extension up to six months in exceptional cases, based on the recommendation of the competent authority.

Evaluation of Project: The progress of the research project carried out by SRF/JRF will be evaluated every three months by the evaluation committee.

Remuneration and other facilities:
1. SRF shall get Rs 18,000/ (Fixed) (Eighteen thousand rupees only) per month
2. JRF shall get Rs 15,000/ (Fixed) (Fifteen thousand rupees only) per month
3. SRF and JRF shall get up to Rs 25,000 (Twenty five thousand rupees only) as a lump sum payment per year, based on the recommendation of the committee.
4. Reimbursement of expenditure up to Rs. 20,000/- (Twenty Thousand only) during the programme for contingency expenditure purpose for the project and recommended by the competent authority.
5. The SRF/JRF will stay at CCAR within the CPRI premises on chargeable basis.
6. The SRF/JRF are required to visit/stay at project sites depending on the exigencies in connection with the project work.
7. Expenditure towards attending seminars/training programmes relevant to the project, will be provided as per CPRI norms.

National Perspective Plan (NPP) Projects
Development of Silt Erosion Resistant Nano-composite Coatings by Physical Vapour Deposition for Hydro Turbine Components.
Masters degree in Civil/Metallurgy

Tunneling in water charge zones under high hydro static pressure.
Masters degree in Civil

High Temperature Superconducting technology:
Design and development of HTS fault current limiter (FCL)
Design and development of HTS transformers
Masters degree in Electrical/Cryogenics

Development of DVR based voltage source stabilizers for process Industry
Masters degree in Electrical

Improvement in reliability, safety and long term performance of power and converter transformers through improvements in quality of transformer oil.
Masters degree in Electrical / M. Sc., in Chemistry

A Study on Stability & Reliability of the power system with large penetration of Wind Power.
Masters degree in Power System with knowledge in Simulation of Wind Generators.

Design, Development and Application aspects of STATCOM
Masters degree in Electrical

Research Contingency Projects

Polymer campsite sections for compact transmission towers
Masters degree in Machine design / Manufacturing

Study of smart grids and impact of renewable integration
Masters /Bachelors degree in CS, IT / Masters in Electronics

Development of miniature specimen test techniques and advanced NDE approach for damage assessment in in-service high temperature power plant
Masters /Bachelors degree in Metallurgy/
Material science

Design and development and validation of test suites for IEC 62056 (DLMS/COSEM) compliant energy meters
Masters /Bachelors degree in CS, IT

Development of high performance polymeric components based on PEEK & PC for power sector applications
Masters/Bachelors degree in Chemical Engg/Chemistry

Technology for design and development – engineering of HTS power apparatus: HTS power transformer and superconducting fault current limiter
Masters degree in Electrical/ Material Sc

Exploratory Projects

Compact Transformers
Masters degree in Electrical

Power System Control and Protection: Wide Area Measurement system (WAMS)
Masters degree in Electrical

Energy Storage Devices
Masters Degree in Mechanical / Material / Chemical

Design & Development of HVDC Controls
ME in Power Systems / Power Electronics. Knowledge in HVDC controls is preferred

Development of Web based portal
BE (CS / IT )

Seismic testing of Pressurized Piping Loops
M.Tech or BE in Mechanical with 2 years experience in Vibration Testing

more details

Indian Overseas Bank Recruits Manager Information Technology

Indian Overseas Bank Recruits Manager Information Technology - MMGS II




Opening date for online registration03.02.2010
Closing date for online registration02.03.2010
Last Date for receipt of Print out of online Registered Application 10.03.2010

1. Details of Vacancies:





Educational Qualifications: (As on 01.01.2010):

B.Tech Degree (Computer Science/Information Technology/ Electronics & Communication/Computer Technology/Tele-communication Engineering) / B.E Degree (Computer Science/Information Technology/ Electronics & Communication/Computer Technology/Tele-communication Engineering) /MCA

B. AGE: (As on 01.01.2010): Minimum: 21 Years and Maximum: 30 Years

Application Fee:(Non Refundable):
a)For SC/ST/PWD - Candidates - NIL
b)For all other Candidates - Rs. 400/-

More details : http://www.iob.in/uploads/Manager%20IT%20Recruitment%20English%201.pdf

Apply online :

February 3, 2010

dena bank recruitment 2010


Online Registration commences from08.02.2010
Last date of On-line Registration08.03.2010
Last date for Receipt of Printout of Registered Application22.03.2010

Last date for Receipt of Printout of Registered Application from far-flung areas
Date of Written Examination23.05.2010

(* The Demand Draft /Pay Order/ Fees Payment Challan date should not be earlier than 08.02.2010 and not later than08.03.2010)

Post Code No.PostGrade & ScaleTotal VacanciesAge as on 01.04.2010 Min. 21 years Max.as under
1 Manager -IT/Systems MMG Scale-II 12 35 yrs
2Security Officer MMG Scale-II 8 35 yrs
3 Officer -IT/Systems* JMG Scale-I 26 30 yrs



Post Code No - 1: Manager - IT/Systems: (MMG Scale - II)
Qualifications :
Minimum 55% marks in BE / B.Tech (Computer/IT/Electronics and Communication Engg)/B.Sc.
Minimum 55% marks in MCA from recognised University or AICTE approved Institute
"B" Level certificate from Department of Electronics, Government of India

Experience :
Minimum of 3 year experience as Programmer and System Analyst. Preference will be given to
candidate having
(a) Banking experience in IT, Networking, Core Banking Implementation, Data Base Management
system OR
(b) Knowledge of UNIX/DOB, DBMS/4 GL and 'C' Language OR
(c) Worked in development of Banking software OR
(d) Worked in Banking environment and data based operations.
Job Description
Implementation of Core Banking Application in the Bank, Development of scripts, making emergency
changes to the scripts, version and program change control over source, development of MIS in the
Bank, Interface analysis, maintenance, customisation, testing. Maintenance, enhancement,
development of delivery channels, managing the back office. Marketing and sales analysis, new
product design and development, launching product campaign, tracking sales and marketing efforts
and resources, impart training to the trainers and role out teams for CRM implementation, monitoring
security infrastructure and security breaches, taking corrective actions for security breaches, network
setup maintenance
Selection Process

Post Code No - 2 : Security Officer : (MMG Scale - II)

Graduate in any discipline from a recognised University.
An officer with minimum 5 years commissioned service in Army/Navy/Air force
A Police Officer not below the rank of Asstt.S.P./Dy.S.P. With 5 years of service in that rank
An Officer of identical rank in Para Military forces with minimum 5 years of service.

Job Description
Supervision of the security arrangements of branches/RO/HO premises.
Surprise checks of branches/ROs
Security arrangements of Currency Chests.
Cash Management.

Selection Process

Post Code No - 3: Officer (IT/SYS) : (JMG Scale- I)
Qualifications :
Minimum 55% marks in BE / B.Tech (Computer/IT/Electronics and Communication Engg)/B.Sc.
Minimum 55% marks in MCA from recognised University or AICTE approved Institute
"B" Level certificate from Department of Electronics, Government of India

Experience as System Analyst in UNIX/LAN/Windows involvement and proficiency in Oracle and
C/C++RDBMS and GUI Oriented application will be preferred.
Job Description
Implementation of Core Banking Application in the Bank, Development of scripts, making emergency
changes to the scripts, version and program change control over source, development of MIS in the
Bank, Interface analysis, maintenance, customisation, testing. Maintenance, enhancement,
development of delivery channels, managing the back office. Marketing and sales analysis, new
product design and development, launching product campaign, tracking sales and marketing efforts
and resources, impart training to the trainers and role out teams for CRM implementation, monitoring
security infrastructure and security breaches, taking corrective actions for security breaches, network
setup maintenance

Selection Process
Written test and Interview.

a. Educational Qualifications and experience should be as on 01.04.2010.
b. For posts where experience is essential/desirable, it should be full time and post qualification.
c. Experience in the relevant field of the post applied for will only be counted.
d. Computer Literacy (For the Post of Security Officer): Computer proficiency is essential. Before
joining the Bank in Officer Cadre, candidate should possess basic computer application and
operational skills, i.e., WINDOWS, MS OFFICE/LOTUS SMART SUITE, Internet and E-Mail
operations. A certificate from a recognised University or an Institute duly recognised by the
State/Central Government or from any other Institute which is acceptable to the Bank to be
submitted by the candidate as an evidence of having acquired computer proficiency. The
candidate having passed the computer subject during his graduation/post-graduation will also be
acceptable. Duration of the course done preferably be for 60 hours.

A. JMG- I: Pay Scale: Rs.10000 - 470/6 -12820 - 500/3 - 14320 - 560/7 - 18240
B. MMG-II: Pay Scale: Rs.13820 - 500/1 -14320 - 560/10 - 19920

a) For SC/ST/PWD - Rs.75/-(Only Postal Charges)
b) For all others (including OBC/Ex-Servicemen) - Rs.350/-

More details : http://www.denabank.com/viewdetail.jsp?lang=0&did=12651006009379F8F50A13E655CA3EC8A3FF9F8FF31F3&id=0,48


February 2, 2010

Dotnet Interview Questions


SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) is overall process of developing information systems through multistep process systems from investigation of initial requirements through analysis, design, implementation and maintenance.

Types of SDLC

· Waterfall Model.

· Spiral Model.

· Build and Fix model.

· Rapid prototyping Model.

· Incremental Model.

1. (Initiation)System Requirement: - This is initial stage of the project where end user requirements are gathered and documented.

2. (Planning) System Design: - In this stage detail requirements, screen layout, business rules, process diagram, pseudo code and other documentations are prepared. This is first step in technical phase.

3. (Execution) Implementation: - Depending on the design document actual code is written here.

4. (Controlling) Integration and Testing: - All pieces are brought together and tested. Bugs are removed in this phase.

5. (Closure) Acceptance, Installation and Deployment: - This is final stage where software is put in production and runs actual business.

6. Maintenance: - This is least glamorous phase which runs forever. Code Changes, correction, addition etc are done in this phase.

Diff of Abstract classes and Interfaces


Abstract classes

begins with a keyword interface so it is of type interface

declared with the abstract keyword so it is of type class

It has no implementation, but they have to be implemented.

These methods can have implementations and they have to be extended.

It can only have method declaration (implicitly public and abstract)

and fields (implicitly public static)

These methods can’t have implementation only when declared abstract.

It can inherit more than one interface.

It can implement more than one interfaces, but can inherit only one class

It must override all abstract method and may override virtual methods.

It can be used when the implementation is changing

It can be used to provide some default behavior for a base class.

It makes implementation interchangeable.

It have increase security by hiding the implementation.

It can be used when implementing framework

These are an excellent way to create planned inheritance hierarchies and also to use as non-leaf classes in class hierarchies.

Generalization and Specialization in OOPS

Just like abstraction is closely related with generalization and the inheritance is closely related with specialization.

One of the most important relationships among objects in the real world is specialization, which can be described as the “is-a” relationship.

Example: When we say that a dog is a mammal, we mean that the dog is a specialized kind of mammal. It has all the characteristics of any mammal (it bears live young, nurses with milk, has hair), but it specializes these characteristics to the familiar characteristics of canis domesticus. A cat is also a mammal. As such, we expect it to share certain characteristics with the dog that are generalized in Mammal, but to differ in those characteristics that are specialized in cats.

The specialization and generalization relationships are both reciprocal and hierarchical.

Specialization is just the other side of the generalization coin: Mammal generalizes what is common between dogs and cats, and dogs and cats specialize mammals to their own specific subtypes.

In OOP, the specialization relationship is implemented using the principle called inheritance.

Data abstraction

Data abstraction refers to, providing only essential features by hiding its background properties (or) implementation details.
class result
int marks;
float percentage;
char name[20];
void input();
void output();
bank b1;
in the above example, b1 is an object calling input and
output member functions, but that code is invisible to the
object b1.


It is the ability of an object to hide its data and methods from the rest of the world. It is one of the fundamental principles of OOPs.

Public class Calculations
private void fnMultiply(int x, int y)
return x * y;
Calculations obj;
int Result;
Result = obj.fnMultiply(5,10);


It means the ability to request that the same operations be performed by a wide range of different types of things.

In OOP the polymorphisms is achieved by using many different techniques named as

· Method overloading

· Operator overloading

· Method overriding

Method Overloading:

The method overloading is the ability to define several methods all with the same name.

public class MyLogger


public void LogError(Exception e)


// Implementation goes here


public bool LogError(Exception e, string message)


// Implementation goes here



Operator Overloading:

The operator overloading is a specific case of polymorphisms in which some or all of operators like +, - or == are treated as polymorphic functions and as such have different behaviors depending on the types of its arguments

public class Complex
    private int real;
    public int Real    { get { return real; } }
    private int imaginary;
    public int Imaginary    { get { return imaginary; } }
    public Complex(int real, int imaginary)
        this.real = real;
        this.imaginary = imaginary;
    public static Complex operator +(Complex c1, Complex c2)
        return new Complex(c1.Real + c2.Real, c1.Imaginary + c2.Imaginary);
public override string ToString()
        return (String.Format("{0} + {1}i", real, imaginary));

I above example I have overloaded the plus operator for adding two complex numbers.

There the two properties named Real and Imaginary has been declared exposing only the required “get” method, while the object’s constructor is demanding for mandatory real and imaginary values with the user defined constructor of the class

Method Overriding:

Method overriding is a language feature that allows a subclass to override a specific implementation of a method that is already provided by one of its super-classes.

A subclass can give its own definition of methods but need to have the same signature as the method in its super-class. This means that when overriding a method the subclass's method has to have the same name and parameter list as the super-class's overridden method.

In above example I have extended the implementation of the sample Complex class given under operator overloading section.

This class has one overridden method named “ToString”, which override the default implementation of the standard “ToString” method to support the correct string conversion of a complex number.

MVC Architecture:

The Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture separates the modeling of the domain, the presentation, and the actions based on user input into three separate classes


  1. Model: DataSet and typed DataSet (some times business object, object collection, XML etc) are the most common use of the model.
  2. View: The ASPX and ASCX files generally handle the responsibilities of the view.
  3. Controllers: The handling of events or the controlling is usually done in the code-behind class.

In a complex n-tier distributed system the MVC architecture place the vital role of organizing the presentation tier of the system.

Difference between Thread and Process.

A thread is the basic unit to which the operating system allocates processor time.

A thread is a path of execution that run on CPU, a process is a collection of threads that share the same virtual memory. A process has at least one thread of execution, and a thread always run in a process context.

Process is an execution of a program and program contains set of instructions but thread is a single sequence stream within the process.
Thread is sometime called lightweight process. 
Single thread allows a operating system to perform single task at a time.
Similarities between process and threads are: 
·         Share CPU. 
·         Sequential execution 
·         Create child 
·         If one thread is blocked then the next will be start to run like process. 
·         Threads are not independent like process. 
·         All threads can access every address in the task unlike process. 
·         Threads are design to assist or another and process might or not might be assisted on one another.



Threads share the address space of the process that created it.
Processes have their own address.

Threads have direct access to the data segment (Global variables, Code lines) of its process
Processes have their own copy of the data segment of the parent process
Threads can directly communicate with other threads of its process
Processes must use inter process communication to communicate with sibling processes. 

Threads have almost no overhead

Processes have considerable overhead.

New threads are easily created

New processes require duplication of the parent process.
Threads can exercise considerable control over threads of the same process
processes can only exercise control over 
Child processes. 
Changes to the main thread (cancellation, priority 
change, etc.) may affect the behavior of the other threads of the process
Changes to the parent process does not affect child processes

Difference between Debug and Release.



Suppose u have developed a windows application, now u want test it whether it is working or not, for that u need to build your application, here u will be choosing the DEBUG mode because this is not your final application u r still in testing mode itself

Suppose u have developed a windows application, now u want release the application to client , here u will be choosing the RELEASE mode. It’s a final application

In terms of execution speed, a debug executable will execute slower

In terms of execution speed, a release executable will execute faster

In a debug build the complete symbolic debug information is emitted to help while debugging applications and also the code optimization is not taken

While in release build the symbolic debug info is not emitted and the code execution is optimized

If you want the deploy the application in debug mode , it will take more resources on background so it will take more memory.

If you want the deploy the application in release mode , it won’t take more resources.

Difference between Single Call and Single Ton:

Singleton: Same instance of a Server-side object is used by all the clients for all the requests.

Single Call: Whenever a new call is received, a new instance of the Server-side object is created and reference is passed to the client. Therefore, for each call to the server, the client gets a new instance of the object.

Single Call

Single Ton


Single Call objects service one and only one request coming in.

Single Call objects are useful in scenarios where the objects are required to do a finite amount of work.

Single Call objects are usually not required to store state information and they cannot hold state information between method calls

Singleton objects are those objects that service multiple clients and hence share data by storing state information between client invocations. They are useful in cases in which data needs to be shared explicitly between clients and also in which the overhead of creating and maintaining objects is substantial.

Single call objects can be used when overhead of creating it is insignificant, you do not need to maintain state and server needs to support large number of requests for the object. Because single call objects are created and destroyed with each client request, server resources are only tied up for small length of time.

Singleton object can be used when you need to maintain state over a period of time and several clients need to work on shared basis. There would be just one instance of an object

Difference between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect:



Server.Transfer is used when redirecting the webpage within the same application

Response.Redirect is applicable towards the redirection of webpage between 2 applications

Response.Redirect will instruct browser to call a particular webpage. This will increase one request and one response between the client and server

Server. Transfer is only used for aspx pages it will not work for html pages.

Response. Redirect can be used both for aspx and html pages

Server. Transfer if we selected the second attribute to TRUE then it will post the entire variable using the post method.

Response. Redirect will only get method to post variables form one page to another means we need to give in query string if we want to pass some variables to next page

Server. Transfer does not roundtrip

Response. Redirect provides a roundtrip to the server

Server.Transfer can be used only to transfer to other pages of the same web site.

Response.Redirect can be used to redirect to external web sites

Difference between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Record set?


Record set

Data set is working in disconnected mode which improves performance of the application

Record set is working in connected mode

Dataset in ado.net will gets more than one table at a time

Record set we will get at any time only one table from the database

We can retrieve data from different databases by using data set

by using record set we can retrieve data from one table

dataset is typesafe

Record set is un typesafe

We can retrieve single data from the multiple tables and make a relation between them(Foreign-key)

We can retrieve single data from the multiple tables by using Joins


  • An Assembly is a logical unit of code
  • Assembly physically exist as DLLs or EXEs
  • One assembly can contain one or more files
  • Assemblies are group of Exes and Dlls

They form the fundamental unit of deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions. An assembly is a collection of types and resources that are built to work together and form a logical unit of functionality.

An assembly provides the common language runtime with the information it needs to be aware of type implementations.

3 Types of Assemblies

Private Assembly: This type of assembly is used by a single application. It is stored in the application's directory or the applications sub-directory. There is no version constraint in a private assembly.

Public Assembly: A shared assembly has version constraint. It is stored in the Global Assembly Cache (GAC). To make an assembly a shared assembly, it has to be strongly named. In order to share an assembly with many applications, it must have a strong name.

Satellite Assembly: is an assembly that contains only resources, and no code. The resources are location specific. A satellite assembly is associated with a main assembly, the one that actually contains the code.

Difference between Exe and Dll



Extensible Execute File

Dynamic Link Library

.exe use by End User like-Client

.Dll cannot use by End User.

We can Run the .exe

but we cannot Run the .Dll

An EXE can run independently

DLL will run within an EXE

EXE is an out-process file

DLL is an in-process file

Strong Name

The Strong Name tool helps sign assemblies with strong names. [It can be applicable for public assemblies]


An Asp .net application has one web.config file which keeps the configurations required for the corresponding application. Web.config file is written in XML with specific tags having specific meanings.


As web.config file is used to configure one asp .net web application, same way Machine.config file is used to configure the application according to a particular machine. That is, configuration done in machine.config file is affected on any application that runs on a particular machine. Usually, this file is not altered and only web.config is used which configuring applications.

View State:

· View State is pretty good for storing simple values for use in the form.

· View state is a built-in structure for automatically retaining values among multiple requests for the same page.

· The view state is internally maintained as a hidden field on the page

· It providing greater security because of the values in view state are hashed, compressed, and encoded, thus representing a higher state of security

· View State values are not carried between pages

Navigation controls:

It is used for navigation of the pages

  • Dynamic menus
  • TreeViews
  • Site Map Path

Difference between Ado and Ado.Net:



ADO works with connected data. This means that when you access data, such as viewing and updating data, it is real-time, with a connection being used all the time.

ADO.NET uses data in a disconnected fashion. When you access data, ADO.NET makes a copy of the data using XML. ADO.NET only holds the connection open long enough to either pull down the data or to make any requested updates.

ADO has one main object that is used to reference data, called the Record set object. This object basically gives you a single table view of your data, although you can join tables to create a new set of records

ADO.NET, you have various objects that allow you to access data in various ways. The Data Set object will actually allow you to store the relational model of your database

ADO allows you to create client-side cursors only

ADO.NET gives you the choice of either using client-side or server-side cursors

In ADO.NET, classes actually handle the work of cursors.

This allows the developer to decide which is best.

For Internet development, this is crucial in creating efficient applications

Whereas ADO allows you to persist records in XML format,

ADO.NET allows you to manipulate your data using XML as the primary means

Asp.Net Life Cycle:

Page request: The page request occurs before the page life cycle begins. When the page is requested by a user, ASP.NET determines whether the page needs to be parsed and compiled or whether a cached version of the page can be sent in response without running the page.

Start: In the start step, page properties such as Request and Response are set. At this stage, the page also determines whether the request is a postback or a new request and sets the IsPostBack property.

Page initialization: During page initialization, controls on the page are available and each control's UniqueID property is set. Any themes are also applied to the page.

Load: During load, if the current request is a postback, control properties are loaded with information recovered from view state and control state.

Validation: During validation, the Validate method of all validator controls is called, which sets the IsValid property of individual validator controls and of the page.

Postback event handling: If the request is a postback, any event handlers are called.

Rendering: Before rendering, view state is saved for the page and all controls. During the rendering phase, the page calls the Render method for each control, providing a text writer that writes its output to the OutputStream of the page's Response property.

Unload: Unload is called after the page has been fully rendered, sent to the client, and is ready to be discarded. At this point, page properties such as Response and Request are unloaded and any cleanup is performed.


A constructor is a special type of method that is invoked automatically when an object is created. Constructors allow you to specify starting values for properties, and other such initialization details.

Classes in Ado.Net

We can divide the ADO.NET classes into provider and consumer objects.

Provider objects are each type of data source, the actual reading and writing to and from data source is done with the provider-specific objects.

Consumer objects are tools that we use to access and manipulate the data after we have read it into memory. The consumer objects work in disconnected mode.

Provider Objects

Connection Object

Commander Object

Command Builder Object

DataReader Object

Data Adapter Object

Consumer Objects

Dataset Objects




Delegates and Events

Delegates are the like pointer to the event it only point to the event and that event get fire
like we can say use can raise event even without that event happen.

Events are the actions of the system on user manipulations (e.g. mouse clicks, key press, timer etc.) or any event triggered by the program.

Delegate is type which holds the method(s) reference in an object. It is also referred as a type safe function pointers

Event is Arraylist of delegates.
* Delegate can fire only one method

But Event fire more than one delegate, each call one method.

Protected Friend and Friend.

Friend --> Accessible ONLY by 1.Derived classes 2.Classes 
in the same assembly 3.Within the same class
Protected Friend --> Accessible ONLY by 1.Derived classes 
2.Classes in the same assembly 3.Within the same class

--last record

select top 1 * from tblhobbies order by hobbiesid desc

--last two records

select top 2 * from tblhobbies Order by hobbiesid desc

-- second row from top

with tblrows as

(select row_number() over (order by hobbiesid) as row_num,* from tblhobbies )

select * from tblrows where row_num =2

-- second row from bottom

select * from tblhobbies where hobbiesid =(SELECT MIN(hobbiesid) FROM tblhobbies

WHERE hobbiesid IN

(SELECT TOP 2 hobbiesid FROM tblhobbies ORDER BY hobbiesid DESC))

--Nth Highest salary

SELECT DISTINCT (a.hobbiesid) FROM tblhobbies A WHERE n = (SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT (b.hobbiesid)) FROM tblhobbies B WHERE a.hobbiesid<=b.hobbiesid);

Sealed class

Sealed classes are used to restrict the inheritance feature of object oriented programming. Once a class is defined as sealed class, this class cannot be inherited.

In Visual Basic .NET, NotInheritable keyword serves the purpose of sealed.

using System;
class Class1
static void Main(string[] args)
SealedClass sealedCls = new SealedClass();
int total = sealedCls.Add(4, 5);
Console.WriteLine("Total = " + total.ToString());
// Sealed class
sealed class SealedClass
public int Add(int x, int y)
return x + y;

How to inherit the static class a in derived class b(syntax declaration)

Static class inheritance is not the way to go: It is the wrong mechanism to use, and works only for static members that happen to reside in a static class.

Joins using Linq:

Inner Join

var q = from c in customers
            join o in orders on c.Key equals o.Key
            select new {c.Name, o.OrderNumber};
“Var” data type in asp.net
·         C# 3.0 adds the interesting behavior of Declaring Local Variables Implicitly
·         This means that there is no need to mention the data type when declaring    a variable.
·         A local variable can be declared implicitly using the var keyword in C#.
·         Declaring local variables implicitly has some restrictions; the variable must be initialized to some expression that can not be null.

var a= 10;
var z = "Rekha";
Difference between Typed and Untyped Dataset
Typed Dataset
UnTyped Dataset
Typed datasets give you nice automatically-generated

classes with properties and method suited exactly for your needs
Untyped dataset you have to follow the database structure. The database

tells you what to do. The select statements may return much more columns
that you need, or with different names
MyTypedDataSet.MyDoctor.FirstName = "Fred"
MyUntypedDataSet.Tables("Doctors").Row(0).Item(1)= "Fred"
the dataset which follows the unstructure is called as Unstructured dataset
dataset can be inherited from dataset class by providing strongly typed properties and methods
Stored Procedure:
In a database management system (DBMS), a stored procedure is a set of Structured Query Language (SQL) statements with an assigned name that's stored in the database in compiled form so that it can be shared by a number of programs.
Stored Procedure
1. Should return at least one output parameter. Can return more than one parameter using OUT argument.
1. Doesn't need to return values but can return value.
2. Parsed and compiled at runtime.
2. Stored as a pseudo-code in database i.e. compiled form.
3. Cannot affect the state of database.
3.Can affect the state of database using commit etc.
4. Can be invoked from SQL statement e.g. SELECT.
4. Cannnot be invoked from SQL statements e.g. SELECT.
5. Functions are mainly used to compute values.
5. Procedures are mainly used to process the tasks.
Truncate and Delete
Truncate is faster operation to over the delete
Deletion of each row gets logged and physically deleted.
TRUNCATE will reset any identity columns to the default seed value.  This means if you have a table with an identity column and you have 264 rows with a seed value of 1, your last record will have the value 264 (assuming you started with value 1) in its identity columns.  After TRUNCATEing your table, when you insert a new record into the empty table, the identity column will have a value of 1.  DELETE will not do this.  In the same scenario, if you DELETEd your rows, when inserting a new row into the empty table, the identity column will have a value of 265.
AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a web development technique for creating interactive web applications. 
It allows content on a page to refresh without refreshing the entire page. 
This allows one section of page to stay up to date by getting new information regularly at a set frequency without the need for the website visitor to keep refreshing the entire page.

What AJAX is made up of:

  • XHTML (or HTML) is used for marking up content and displaying text and images in a web browser (such as Firefox, Opera, or Internet Explorer).
  • XML, preformatted HTML, plain text, JSON can also work with AJAX
  • CSS and styling information. CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets and is used to "style" a webpage
  • The DOM (Document Object Model) manipulated through JavaScript to dynamically display and interact with the information presented
  • The XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data asynchronously with the web server. In some Ajax frameworks and in some situations, an IFrame object is used instead of the XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data with the web server.

What is an AJAX application?

Ajax applications, can send requests to the web server to retrieve only the data that is needed, and may use SOAP or some other XML-based web services dialect.

On the client, JavaScript processes the web server's response, and may then modify the document's content through the DOM to show the user that an action has been completed.

The result is a more responsive application, since the amount of data interchanged between the web browser and web server is vastly reduced. Web server processing time is also saved, since much of it is done on the client.

Without the use of update panel how could you call the page post back event in Ajax?
By using xmlHttpRequest and callback function ()
function ajax_request() {

// ...
xhrobj.onreadystatechange = function ajax_response() {
// ...
xhr.send( );


function callback() {
    if (req.readyState == 4) {
        if (req.status == 200) {
            // update the HTML DOM based on whether or not message is valid

How do we sort the data in dataset

Code Example:

SqlConnection cn;

cn=new SqlConnection(ConnectionString);
SqlDataAdapter da;
DataSet ds=new DataSet();
da=new SqlDataAdapter("select emp_id, fname, lname from employee",cn);
DataView dtView = ds.Tables[0].DefaultView;
dtView.Sort = "fname ASC";
Also Here is a little method I used to sort a datatable:
 /// The DataTable to be sorted.
 /// A way to filter out certain rows from the table.
 /// A way to sort the table (i.e. "State IN 'CA'")
 /// A Sorted/Filtered DataTable
 public static DataTable FilterSortData(DataTable dtStart, string filter, string sort)
 DataTable dt = dtStart.Clone();
 DataRow[] drs = dtStart.Select(filter, sort);
 foreach (DataRow dr in drs)
 return dt;
Difference between 2.0 and 3.0 and 3.5

2.0 = framework that shipped with VS 2005 VB 8.0 / C# 2.0

3.0 = same framework as 2.0 + WCF + WPF + WF

3.5 = all the above + LINQ technologies and will ship with the next VS including VB 9.0 and C# 3.0, SharePoint sequential and state machine work flows

Self Join
Self-join to simplify nested SQL queries where the inner and outer queries reference the same table. These joins allow you to retrieve related records from the same table.
SELECT e.first_name AS 'Employee FN', e.last_name AS 'Employee LN', m.first_name AS 'Manager FN', m.last_name AS 'Manager LN'

FROM employees AS e LEFT OUTER JOIN employees AS m
ON e.manager =m.id
Functions and Sub Routines in VB.Net

1. VB.Net Subroutine is faster than Function

2. You should never use a Function without a return type, it wont give you a compilation error but it hinders the performance.

Multi file assembly extension
How can we get environment temp directory
[using "environment"] Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("TEMP");
Conversion from .net data type to xml data type
using "xmlconvert"
How to set connection pool
initial catalog=Northwind; Data Source=localhost; Connection Timeout=30; 
User Id=MYUSER; Password=PASSWORD; Min Pool Size=20; Max Pool Size=200; 
Incr Pool Size=10; Decr Pool Size=5;
How to get distinct rows in datatable.defaultview
How to set the asynchronous mode to connection string
private void Execute(string connectionstring)
    SqlConnection connection =     new SqlConnection(connectionstring + "async=true;");
    SqlCommand command =    new SqlCommand("MyStoredProcedure", connection);
    command.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure; 
    command.BeginExecuteReader(Asynchronous, command,  CommandBehavior.CloseConnection);
What steps you are created for globalization
Which setup project to install activex controls in web applications
How to know the user in particular role using membership control
Which modifier used by default event handlers
How to get the last error
How to clear the error messages
How to know the longest running event in page life cycle
How to overloading the methods in web service
[WebMethod(MessageName = "AddInt", Description = "Add two integer 
        Value", EnableSession = true)] 
What is the output below program:
for (; ; )
                Console.WriteLine ("text");
Ans: Infinite loop
How to set the code access security for particular users
Using .net framework configuration wizard or
using  command prompt wizard "caspol.exe"