December 31, 2007

Happy new year

wish you Happy new year to you and your family members.

Have a prosperous year , keep smiling ... :-)

-M Sateesh kumar

Civil Services Examination, 2008

Civil Services Examination, 2008
Examination Notice No. 04/2008
Dated : 29-12-2007
Last Date : 28.01.2008
The number of vacancies to be filled on the results of the examination is expected to be approximately 671.
for full details please visit: upse


The Candidates applying for the examination should ensure that they fulfill all eligibility condition for admission to examination. Their admission at all the stages of the examination will be purely provisional subject to satisfying the prescribed eligibility conditions

Mere issue of admission certificate to the candidate will not imply that his candidature has been finally cleared by the Commission.

Commission take up verification of eligibility conditions with reference to original documents only after the candidate has qualified for interview/Personality Test.


Candidates must apply in the Common Application Form devised by the Commission for its examination, which can be purchased from the Designated Head Post Offices/Post Offices (specified in Appendix III of the notice) throughout the country against cash payment of Rs. 20/- (Rupees Twenty only). Each such form can be used only once and only for one examination.

In case of any difficulty in obtaining Application Forms from the designated HPOs/POs, the candidates should immediately contact the concerned post Master or UPSC's "FORMS SUPPLY MONITORING CELL" over Telephone No. 011-23389366/FAX No. 011-23387310.

Candidates are advised to read carefully the "Instructions for filling up the Application Form" given in Appendix-II of this notice.


All applications must reach the "Secretary, Union Public Service Commission, Dholpur House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi - 110069" either by hand or by Post/Speed Post or by Courier, on or before the 28th January, 2008.

However, in respect of candidates residing abroad or in certain remote localities specified in para 6 of this Notice the last date for receipt of application by Post/Speed Post only (not by Hand or by Courier) is 4th February, 2008

December 27, 2007

Group 1 Group 2 2009 Notification

APPSC has informed that the Commission have scheduled the written examinations for group 1, group 4, JL Recruitments.
The details of the Recruitments and the dates of the Examinations are as follows

Sl.No.Name of the Recruitment and Notification No.Date of Examination
01 Jr.Lecturers in Government Junior Colleges.Notification No : 19/200804-07-2010
02 Gr-I Service Preliminary Examination Notification No : 39/2008 25-07-2010
03 Gr-IV Service – Hostel Welfare Officers Notification No : 41/2008 08-08-2010
04 Gr-IV Service- Junior Assts. & Supervisors / MatronsGrade-II Notification No : 40/200803-10-2010

Group 2 2008 result will be announced on 29th Dec 2008

Group 1
notification is released today i.e 27th Dec 2007.appsc told that a total of 197 post to fill by this notification. The applications are available from 21th Jan 2008 and the last date to send the filled allication is 8th Feb 2008.
the details no of posts in each category as follows

post categoryNo of positions
Deputy Superintendent of Police46
Commercial Tax Office34
Assistant Audit Officers43

Group 2 notification is released on 28th Dec 2007.appsc told that a total of 1468 posts to be filled by this notification. The applications are available from 11th Feb 2008 and the last date to send the filled allication is 29th Feb 2008.

to get the application by post, Send a demad draft of Rs 60. drawn on the name of

Printer & Publisher,
Appsc udyoga samacharam,
Appsc office,
Prathiba bhavan,
Mj Road,
Hyderabad.- 500001

for latest updates on group1 please follow the link :

please visit for full details

December 20, 2007

Sree Sree

ounu nizam, ounu nizam
ounu nizam, nee vanadhi
nee vanadhii, nee vanadhii
nee vanadhii nizam, nizam !

ledhu sukham, ledhu sukham,
ledhu sukham jagathuloo !
brathuku vrudha, chadhuvu vrudha,
kavitha vrudha ! vrudha, vrudha !

manamantha banisalam,
gaanugalam,peenugulam !
venuku dhaga, mundhu dhaga,
kudi yedamala dhagaa, dhagaa !

manadhii oka brathukenaa ?
kukkala vale, nakkala vale !
manadhi oka brathukenaa ?
sandhulaloo pandhula vale !

nizam sumi, nizam sumi,
nee vanadhii nizam sumi !
brathuku chaaya, chadhuvu maaya,
kavitha karakaaya sumi !

ledhu sukham,ledhu rasam
chedhu visham jeevafalam !
jeevafalam chedhu visham,
chedhu visham, chedhu visham !

ounu nizam, ounu nizam,
ounu nizam nee vanadhi!
nee vanadhii, nee vanadhii,
nee vanadhii nizam, nizam !

December 19, 2007

Excels Keyboard Shortcuts

Excels Keyboard Shortcuts

Shortcut key
Action Menu equivalent
comments Version
Ctrl+A Select All None All
Ctrl+B Bold Format, Cells, Font, Font Style, Bold All
Ctrl+C Copy Edit, Copy All
Ctrl+D Fill Down Edit, Fill, Down All
Ctrl+F Find Edit, Find All
Ctrl+G Goto Edit, Goto All
Ctrl+H Replace Edit, Replace All
Ctrl+I Italic Format, Cells, Font, Font Style, Italic All
Ctrl+K Insert Hyperlink Insert, Hyperlink Excel 97/2000
Ctrl+N New Workbook File, New All
Ctrl+O Open File, Open All
Ctrl+P Print File, Print All
Ctrl+R Fill Right Edit, Fill Right All
Ctrl+S Save File, Save All
Ctrl+U Underline Format, Cells, Font, Underline, Single All
Ctrl+V Paste Edit, Paste All
Ctrl W Close File, Close Excel 97/2000
Ctrl+X Cut Edit, Cut All
Ctrl+Y Repeat Edit, Repeat All
Ctrl+Z Undo Edit, Undo All
F1 Help Help, Contents and Index All
F2 Edit None All
F3 Paste Name Insert, Name, Paste All
F4 Repeat last action Edit, Repeat. Works while not in Edit mode. All
F4 While typing a formula, switch between absolute/relative refs None All
F5 Goto Edit, Goto All
F6 Next Pane None All
F7 Spell check Tools, Spelling All
F8 Extend mode None All
F9 Recalculate all workbooks Tools, Options, Calculation, Calc,Now All
F10 Activate Menubar N/A All
F11 New Chart Insert, Chart All
F12 Save As File, Save As All
Ctrl+: Insert Current Time None All
Ctrl+; Insert Current Date None All
Ctrl+" Copy Value from Cell Above Edit, Paste Special, Value All
Ctrl+' Copy Fromula from Cell Above Edit, Copy All
Shift Hold down shift for additional functions in Excel's menu none Excel 97/2000
Shift+F1 What's This? Help, What's This? All
Shift+F2 Edit cell comment Insert, Edit Comments All
Shift+F3 Paste function into formula Insert, Function All
Shift+F4 Find Next Edit, Find, Find Next All
Shift+F5 Find Edit, Find, Find Next All
Shift+F6 Previous Pane None All
Shift+F8 Add to selection None All
Shift+F9 Calculate active worksheet Calc Sheet All
Shift+F10 Display shortcut menu None All
Shift+F11 New worksheet Insert, Worksheet All
Shift+F12 Save File, Save All
Ctrl+F3 Define name Insert, Names, Define All
Ctrl+F4 Close File, Close All
Ctrl+F5 XL, Restore window size Restore All
Ctrl+F6 Next workbook window Window, ... All
Shift+Ctrl+F6 Previous workbook window Window, ... All
Ctrl+F7 Move window XL, Move All
Ctrl+F8 Resize window XL, Size All
Ctrl+F9 Minimize workbook XL, Minimize All
Ctrl+F10 Maximize or restore window XL, Maximize All
Ctrl+F11 Inset 4.0 Macro sheet None in Excel 97. In versions prior to 97 - Insert, Macro, 4.0 Macro All
Ctrl+F12 File Open File, Open All
Alt+F1 Insert Chart Insert, Chart... All
Alt+F2 Save As File, Save As All
Alt+F4 Exit File, Exit All
Alt+F8 Macro dialog box Tools, Macro, Macros in Excel 97 Tools,Macros - in earlier versions Excel 97/2000
Alt+F11 Visual Basic Editor Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor Excel 97/2000
Ctrl+Shift+F3 Create name by using names of row and column labels Insert, Name, Create All
Ctrl+Shift+F6 Previous Window Window, ... All
Ctrl+Shift+F12 Print File, Print All
Alt+Shift+F1 New worksheet Insert, Worksheet All
Alt+Shift+F2 Save File, Save All
Alt+= AutoSum No direct equivalent All
Ctrl+` Toggle Value/Formula display Tools, Options, View, Formulas All
Ctrl+Shift+A Insert argument names into formula No direct equivalent All
Alt+Down arrow Display AutoComplete list None Excel 95
Alt+' Format Style dialog box Format, Style All
Ctrl+Shift+~ General format Format, Cells, Number, Category, General All
Ctrl+Shift+! Comma format Format, Cells, Number, Category, Number All
Ctrl+Shift+@ Time format Format, Cells, Number, Category, Time All
Ctrl+Shift+# Date format Format, Cells, Number, Category, Date All
Ctrl+Shift+$ Currency format Format, Cells, Number, Category, Currency All
Ctrl+Shift+% Percent format Format, Cells, Number, Category, Percentage All
Ctrl+Shift+^ Exponential format Format, Cells, Number, Category, All
Ctrl+Shift+& Place outline border around selected cells Format, Cells, Border All
Ctrl+Shift+_ Remove outline border Format, Cells, Border All
Ctrl+Shift+* Select current region Edit, Goto, Special, Current Region All
Ctrl++ Insert Insert, (Rows, Columns, or Cells) Depends on selection All
Ctrl+- Delete Delete, (Rows, Columns, or Cells) Depends on selection All
Ctrl+1 Format cells dialog box Format, Cells All
Ctrl+2 Bold Format, Cells, Font, Font Style, Bold All
Ctrl+3 Italic Format, Cells, Font, Font Style, Italic All
Ctrl+4 Underline Format, Cells, Font, Font Style, Underline All
Ctrl+5 Strikethrough Format, Cells, Font, Effects, Strikethrough All
Ctrl+6 Show/Hide objects Tools, Options, View, Objects, Show All/Hide All
Ctrl+7 Show/Hide Standard toolbar View, Toolbars, Stardard All
Ctrl+8 Toggle Outline symbols None All
Ctrl+9 Hide rows Format, Row, Hide All
Ctrl+0 Hide columns Format, Column, Hide All
Ctrl+Shift+( Unhide rows Format, Row, Unhide All
Ctrl+Shift+) Unhide columns Format, Column, Unhide All
Alt or F10 Activate the menu None All
Ctrl+Tab In toolbar: next toolbar None Excel 97/2000
Shift+Ctrl+Tab In toolbar: previous toolbar None Excel 97/2000
Ctrl+Tab In a workbook: activate next workbook None

December 17, 2007



1. No Breakfast
People who do not take breakfast are going to have a lower blood sugar level.
This leads to an insufficient supply of nutrients to the brain causing brain degeneration.

2. Overeating
It causes hardening of the brain arteries, leading to a decrease in mental power.

3. Smoking
It causes multiple brain shrinkage and may lead to Alzheimer disease.

4. High Sugar consumption
Too much sugar will interrupt the absorption of proteins and nutrients causingmalnutrition and may interfere with brain development.

5. Air Pollution
The brain is the largest oxygen consumer in our body. Inhaling polluted air decreases the supply of oxygen to the brain, bringing about a decrease in brain efficiency.

6. Sleep Deprivation
Sleep allows our brain to rest. Long term deprivation from sleep will accelerate the death of brain cells.
7. Head covered while sleeping
Sleeping with the head covered, increases the concentration of carbon dioxide and decrease concentration of oxygen that may lead to brain damaging effects.

8. Working your brain during illness
Working hard or studying with sickness may lead to a decrease in effectiveness of the brain as well as damage the brain.

9. Lacking in stimulating thoughts
Thinking is the best way to train our brain, lacking in brain stimulation thoughts may cause brain shrinkage.

10. Talking Rarely
Intellectual conversations will promote the efficiency of the brain
The main causes of liver damage are:

1. Sleeping too late and waking up too late are main cause.
2. Not urinating in the morning.
3. Too much eating.
4. Skipping breakfast.
5. Consuming too much medication.
6. Consuming too much preservatives, additives, food coloring , and artificial sweetener.
7. Consuming unhealthy cooking oil. As much as possible reduce cooking oil use when frying, which includes even the best cooking oils like olive oil. Do not consume fried foods when you are tired, except if the body is very fit.
8. Consuming raw (overly done) foods also add to the burden of liver.
Veggies should be eaten raw or cooked 3-5 parts. Fried veggies should be finished in one sitting, do not store.

We should prevent this without necessarily spending more. We just have to adopt a good daily lifestyle and eating habits. Maintaining good eating habits and time condition are very important for our bodies to absorb and get rid of unnecessary chemicals according to "schedule."

Because :

Evening at 9 - 11 PM : is the time for eliminating unnecessary/toxic chemicals (detoxification) from the antibody system (lymph nodes). This time duration should be spent by relaxing or listening to music. If during this time a housewife is still in an unrelaxed state such as washing the dishes or monitoring children doing their homework, this will have a negative impact on health.

Evening at 11pm - 1 am : is the detoxification process in the liver, and ideally should be done in a deep sleep state.

Early morning 1 - 3 am : detoxification process in the gall, also ideally done in a deep sleep state.
Early morning 3 - 5 am : detoxification in the lungs. Therefore there will sometimes be a severe cough for cough sufferers during this time. Since the detoxification process had reached the respiratory tract, there is no need to take cough medicine so as not to interfere with toxin removal process.
Morning 5 - 7am : detoxification in the colon, you should empty your bowel.

Morning 7 - 9 am : absorption of nutrients in the small intestine, you should be having breakfast at this time. Breakfast should be earlier, before 6:30 am , for those who are sick. Breakfast before 7:30 am is very beneficial to those wanting to stay fit. Those who always skip breakfast, they should change their habits, and it is still better to eat breakfast late until 9 - 10 am rather than no meal at all.

Sleeping so late and waking up too late will disrupt the process of removing unnecessary chemicals. Aside from that, midnight to 4:00 am is the time when the bone marrow produces blood. Therefore, have a good sleep and don't sleep late.

AND PASS THIS TO ALL WHOM YOU LOVE & CARE FOR ......................

December 14, 2007

a story about positive attitude

Dear All I came across a lovely story which I felt I should share with each one of you. It is about positive attitude towards life and everything in it. I am sure, you all agree with me, when I say that 'Life is all about choices'. Make the right choice so that you have to smile on your lips when you wake up, and a smile on when you go to bed, day in and day out.
Here's the story- I trust you'll all enjoy reading it! __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Raju is the kind of guy you love to hate. He is always in a good mood and always has something positive to say. When someone would ask him how he was doing, he would reply, "If I were any better, I would be twins!" He was a natural motivator. If an employee was having a bad day, Raju was there telling the employee how to look on the positive side of the situation.Seeing this style really made me curious, so one day I went up and asked him, "I don't get it! You can't be a positive person all of the time. How do you do it?" He replied, "Each morning I wake up and say to myself, you have two choices today. You can choose to be in a good mood or ... you can choose to be in a bad mood. I choose to be in a good mood." Each time something bad happens, I can choose to be a victim or...I can choose to learn from it. I choose to learn from it. Every time someone comes to me complaining, I can choose to accept their complaining or... I can point out the positive side of life. I choose the positive side of life. "Yeah, right, it's not that easy," I protested. "Yes, it is," he said. "Life is all about choices. When you cut away all the junk, every situation is a choice. You choose how you react to situations. You choose how people affect your mood. You choose to be in a good mood or bad mood. The bottom line: It's your choice how you live your life."I reflected on what he said. Soon hereafter, I left the Industry to start my own business. We lost touch, but I often thought about him when I made a choice about life instead of reacting to it.
Several years later, I heard that he was involved in a serious accident, falling some 60 feet from a communications tower. After 18 hours of surgery and weeks of intensive care, he was released from the hospital with rods placed in his back.I saw him about six months after the accident. When I asked him how he was, he replied, "If I were any better, I'd be twins...Wanna see my scars?" I declined to see his wounds, but I did ask him what had gone through his mind as the accident took place. "The first thing that went through my mind was the well-being of my soon-to-be born daughter," he replied. "Then, as I lay on the ground, I remembered that I had two choices: I could choose to live or...I could choose to die. I chose to live." "Weren't you scared? Did you lose consciousness?" I asked. He continued, "the paramedics were great." They kept telling me I was going to be fine. But when they wheeled me into the ER and I saw the expressions on the faces of the doctors and nurses, I got really scared. In their eyes, I read 'he's a dead man'. I knew I needed to take action.""What did you do?" I asked. "Well, there was a big burly nurse shouting questions at me," said John. "She asked if I was allergic to anything. 'Yes, I replied.' The doctors and nurses stopped working as they waited for my reply. I took a deep breath and yelled, 'Gravity'. Over their laughter, I told them, "I am choosing to live. Operate on me as if I am alive, not dead." He lived, thanks to the skill of his doctors, but also because of his amazing attitude... I learned from him that every day we have the choice to live fully.Attitude, after all, is everything. "Therefore do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. Each day has enough trouble of its own."After all today is the tomorrow you worried about yesterday.You have two choices now:1. Learn to Live Life- enjoy every minute of it2. Continue to lead life the way it is- cribbing, complaining, and filled with negativityYou know the choice that helps!

Dont copy if con't paste properly

Story of the Day: Don’t Copy If You Cant Paste Properly
At training program for top management. A well-known motivational speaker gathering the entire crowd's attention, said, "The best years of my life were spent in the arms of a woman who wasn't my wife !"
The crowd was shocked! He followed up by saying, "That woman was my mother!" The crowd burst into laughter and he gave his speech, which was well received. About a week later, one of the top managers who had the training decided to use that joke at his house. He tried to rehearse the joke in his head. It was a bit foggy to him.
He said loudly, "The greatest years of my life were spent in the arms of a woman who was not my wife!" Naturally, his wife was shell shocked, murmuring. After standing there for almost 10 seconds trying to recall the second half of the joke, the manager finally blurted out "... and I can't remember who she was !"
As expected, he got thrashing of his life time.... Moral of the story: Don't copy if you can't paste properly Have a nice weekend....

Nice ad. save electricity


price less

Rohit wakes up at home with a huge hangover. He forces himself to open his eyes,
and the first thing he sees is a couple of aspirins and a glass of water on the side table. He sits down and sees his clothing in front of him, all clean and pressed. Rohit looks around the room and sees that it is in perfect order, spotless, clean. So is the rest of the house. He takes the aspirins and notices a note on the table. "Honey, breakfast is on the stove, I left early to go shopping. Love You!" So he goes to the kitchen and sure enough there is a hot breakfast and the morning newspaper. His son is also at the table, eating. Rohit asks, "Son, what happened last night?" His son says, "Well, you came home around 3 AM, drunk and delirious. Broke some furniture, puked in the hallway, and gave yourself a black eye when you stumbled into the door". Confused, Rohit asks, "So, why is everything in order and so clean, and breakfast is on the table waiting for me? I should expect a big quarrel with her!" His son replies, "Oh, that! Mom dragged you to the bedroom, and when she tried to take your clothes n shoes off, you said, "Lady leave me alone! I'm married!"

Self-induced hangover -- Rs. 2000.00
Broken furniture -- Rs. 20,000.00
Breakfast -- Rs. 100.00
Saying The Right Thing While Drunk - PRICELESS.


There is a very, very tall coconut tree,
and there are 4 animals:King Kong, Ape, Orangutan and a Monkey pass by.

They have a competition to see who is the fastest to get the banana.
Who do you guess will win?
Your answer will reflect your personality.
Try and answer within 30secondsGot your answer?
Scroll down to see the analysis.
If your answer is ....

Orangutan = dull/stupid
Ape = foolish
Monkey = idiot
King Kong = stupidWhy?????
Coconut tree,
doesn't have bananas..... ...!!Obviously you're stressed and overworked.
Take some time off and relax!! Its friday!!!

Goooooooooooooooooooooooooo out and party... n n

Poem from the heart of wife of software engineer....

Even moon has come,
But you haven't

No chance to take lunch With you In this life,
Please don't add dinner In that list.

Fortunately after wedding We had one week fun,
Otherwise We could not have son.

Son has finished counting Stars in the sky,
But you haven't come.
I told, "Father may come in your dream Just sleep and try".

Father for family, Sun for world.
If first absent, Dark is present.

"Dear son....... Tell your father
Money is for life Not life is for money"

Oh! People, Go everywhere,
Without Software.

visit this site. to know about the hyderabad

visit this site. to know about the hyderabad
visit this site. to know about the hyderabad
visit this site. to know about the hyderabad

WTC Tower Plight

Something interesting......
Did you know that a flight number from one of the planes that hit one of the two WTC towers on 9/11 was Q33N.
In Notepad / WordPad or MS Word, type in that flight number i.e. Q33N.
Increase the font size to 72 Change the font to Wingdings 1 ......
You will be amazed by the findings!!!.......................
It itself tells the story of destruction of twin tower and pentagon!!!!!!!!!!!

If you want to succeed in Interviews,

If you want to succeed in Interviews, don’t miss this golden opportunity on Sunday, December 16, 2007 from 10. a.m. to 12. p.m. at NTR Auditorium, Potti Sriramulu Telugu University , Nampally.
Andhra Jyothi & ENGLISH MATTERS jointly invite you to a free seminar on “PIR and JAM rounds in Interviews”
This seminar will cover—
Why PIR and JAM rounds are conducted
Demos on what candidates normally do in these rounds
How to do your PIR and JAM rounds right
Q/A session answered by panel including HR Managers from industry
We are making arrangements to share a database of the participants in this series of “FREE SEMINARS” with prospective employers. Please e-mail your CV to and await call for interview.
Only 270 seats are available.
For more details click here
Collect entry coupons from:English Matters, 102 Sai Manor, S.R.Nagar Circle, HYDERABAD – 500 038.Telephone No: 040-66667758; 23714330email: web:

Really these are very funny videossee and enjoy madi....

Really these are very funny videossee and enjoy madi....

Part 1:
Part 2:

-----Inline Attachment Follows-----HiReally these are very funny videossee and enjoy madi....Part 1:
Part 2:

Our happydays very much simillar

Morning levali...
snanam cheyali....
cab ekkali...
office ki vellali...

oooooooooooooo ooo
ooo oooooooooooooo
ooo ooo oooooooooooooo
ooo ooo oooooooooooooo ooo ooo

floor lo patalu
pantry lo matalu
training lo wonderluu
Coding lo blunderluu
Appraisals ki tenderlu...

ika cab la kai waitingu
cab drivers tho fighting
pantry lo meeting uuuuu...

ika cab la kai waitingu
cab drivers tho fighting
pantry lo meeting uuuuu...

jill jill jiga....
jill jill jiga...
jill jill jiga....
jill jill jiga... jill jill jiga....
jill jill jiga... jill jill jiga....
jill jill jiga...

Reviews lo tappulu..
code lo bugguluu Clients tho cheevatlu..
PM tho thittulu…
Reviews lo tappulu..
code lo bugguluu Clients tho cheevatlu..
PM tho thittulu…
last minute codingu
Onsite tho fightingu
Bench kosamai waitngu uuuu uuu

last minute codingu
Onsite tho fightingu
Bench kosamai waitngu uuuu uuu

jill jill jiga.... jill jill jiga...
jill jill jiga.... jill jill jiga...

Morning levali...
snanam cheyali....
cab ekkali...
office ki vellali...

I was shocked looking at this. Are'nt u?

I was shocked looking at this. Are'nt u?

Have u ever seen the calendar for September 1752??? If you are working in Unix, try this out. At $ prompt, type: cal 9 1752
Surprised??? ?not only in unix, u can also search it in google
See the explanation for what you see. Isn't the output queer? A month with whole of eleven days missing. This was the time England shifted from Roman Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar, and the king of England ordered those 11 days to be wiped off the face of the month of September of 1752. (What couldn't a King do in those days?!) And yes, the workers worked for 11 days less, but got paid for the entire 30 days. And that's how "Paid Leave" was born.Hail the King!!!
Wanna Google :

Have u ever seen the calendar for September 1752??? If you are working in Unix, try this out. At $ prompt, type: cal 9 1752
Surprised??? ?not only in unix, u can also search it in google
See the explanation for what you see. Isn't the output queer? A month with whole of eleven days missing. This was the time England shifted from Roman Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar, and the king of England ordered those 11 days to be wiped off the face of the month of September of 1752. (What couldn't a King do in those days?!) And yes, the workers worked for 11 days less, but got paid for the entire 30 days. And that's how "Paid Leave" was born.Hail the King!!!
Wanna Google :

December 13, 2007

Biztalk interview Questions

  1. What transport protocols are supported in BizTalk?
  2. What is MSMQT? How it is different from MSMQ?
  3. What needs to be specially done to call a .net assembly from the BizTalk orchestration?
  4. What is xpath? How do you use xpath with Messages?
  5. What is the difference between Static Port and Dynamic Port?
  6. What is BizTalk?
  7. Biztalk is a messaging based integration tool.
    Bonus:It consists of several different pieces including Business Processes
    (Orchestrations), BAM, Rules Engines, and HAT.

  8. What is a Message Type (i.e. BTS.MessageType) and how is it used in BizTalk?

    Message Type is a BizTalk System property that is promoted inside a Pipeline. It
    is made up of Document Name Space # Root Node Name.

  9. What is the default mapping for Auto Mapping?

    The default is by structure.This can be change to by node name on the map

  10. How do you call a Non-Serializable .Net helper class inside an Expression Shape?

    • Add a reference to that class.

    • Make sure your Orchestration is Long Running transactional.

    • Add an Atomic scope.

    • Create an Orchestration variable of that class inside the scope.

    • Create an instance on that object inside the scope.

    • Call the method.

    • Bonus: Mention the class must be strongly signed and in the GAC.

  11. What if the class is Serializable?

    No transactional Orchestration or Atomic scope is needed.

  12. What does the Value Mapping Functoid do?

    Returns the second parameter if the first parameter is true

  13. What is the difference between a Distinguished field and a Promoted Property?

    • Distinguished fields are light weight and can only be used inside an

    • Promoted Properties are defined inside a property schema, are tracking in SQL,
      can be tracked in HAT, and can be used for content based routing.

  14. How do you achieve First-In-First-Out message processing of messages received
    from multiple sources using an Orchestration?

    • Use a Sequential Convoy to process the messages in the order they are received
      into the Message Box.

    • Make sure Ordered Delivery is set to True inside the Orchestration Receive

  15. At high level, what do Receive Ports and Orchestration Send Port really do in terms of messaging? What about Send Ports and Orchestration Receive Ports?

    • Receive Ports and Orchestration Send Port are both publishers.

    • Ports and Orchestration Receive Ports are both subscribers.

  16. When working with Schemas, Maps, Pipelines, and Orchestrations how should the projects be structured?

    • Schemas and Maps in its own project.

    • Or Schemas and Maps together in its own project.

    • Orchestrations in its own project.

    • Pipelines in it own project.

  17. What is direct binding?

    • Direct binding has three types: direct to message box, self correlating, and
      partner ports.

    • Used to route message between the message box and Orchestrations without using
      bindings or from one Orchestration to another Orchestration.

  18. What is BAM used for?

    BAM is used to monitor business milestones and key metrics in near real-time
    throughout a process in BizTalk.

  19. What is the Rules Engine?

  20. Rules are used to provide highly efficient, easily changeable business rules
    evaluation to Business Processes. This allows rules to be changed without
    rebuilding and redeploying .net assemblies. The Business Rules Engine (BRE) can
    also be called from any .net component through the API’s

  21. What are Persistence Points and what causes them?

    • Persistence is when the state of a running Orchestration is stored into SQL.

    • It is good enough to know various shape and actions cause persistence. More
      specifically, it occurs: end of a transactional scope, at a send shape, at a
      start Orchestration shape, during dehydration, if the system shuts down
      expectedly or unexpectedly, or the business process suspends or ends.

  22. What group does a user need to belong to in order to submit messages to the
    message box?

    The user needs to be a member of the hot group or isolated host group (assuming
    a default installation).

  23. What user rights to you need to perform most actions in HAT?
    BizTalk Server Administrator
    When installing Biztalk in a multi-server configuration with a remote SQL and Analysis Services

  24. What are BizTalk artifacts?

  25. What is Promoted Property?

  26. What is Distinguished Field?

  27. What is the difference between Promoted Property and Distinguished Field?
    How do you debug Orchestrations?

  28. What is HAT?

  29. What is Functoid?

  30. How do you develop a Custom Functoid? Which interface to use?

  31. Why the ROOT Name and namespace combination in a schema has to be unique?
  32. What is Correlation?

  33. What are the transaction types available in an orchestration scope?

  34. What is Compensation?

  35. How do you catch exceptions inside the orchestration?

  36. How do you publish an orchestration as web service?

  37. What is Receive Location and Receive Port?

  38. What are the adapters available with BizTalk 2004?

  39. How do you set up MSMQ and MSMQT in the same machine?

  40. What are the components available in an orchestration tool box?

  41. What is the difference between Call Orchestration and Start Orchestration shapes?

December 12, 2007

Civil Service (prel) Examination [IAS, IPS] - 2008 date has been declared:

Civil Service (prel) Examination [IAS, IPS] - 2008 date has been declared:
Date Of Exam: 18 May 2008 (SUNDAY)

Minimum academic qualifications: A degree from a recognised university or equivalent

Age Limits: 21-30 years as on 1.8.2008

Remarks: Candidates appearing at the degree examination also eligible to compete subject to certain conditions.

For More Information Regarding This Exam and If you have any query or any confusion, follow given link:

Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) in .NET

Guid: Globally Unique Identifier, Return a unique identifier with the method of newGuid(). which is mostly used to generate random passwords, and maintaining sessions.


Dim randomNo as String = System.Guid.NewGuid().ToString()

string randomNo = System.Guid.NewGuid().ToString();

December 3, 2007

Convertng rows to coloumns in sql server 2005

You can use the PIVOT and UNPIVOT relational operators to manipulate a table-valued expression into another table. PIVOT rotates a table-valued expression by turning the unique values from one column in the expression into multiple columns in the output, and performs aggregations where necessary on any remaining column values that are desired in the final output. UNPIVOT performs the opposite operation to PIVOT by rotating columns of a table-valued expression into column values.
When using PIVOT and UNPIVOT against databases that are upgraded to Microsoft SQL Server 2005, the database's compatibility level must be set to 90. To set the database compatibility level, see sp_dbcmptlevel (Transact-SQL).
PIVOT provides syntax that is simpler and more readable than what may otherwise be specified in a complex series of SELECT...CASE statements.
A common scenario where PIVOT can be useful is when you want to generate cross-tabulation reports to summarize data. For example, suppose you want to query the PurchaseOrderHeader table in the AdventureWorks sample database to determine the number of purchase orders placed by certain employees. The following query provides this report, broken down by vendor:
Copy Code
USE AdventureWorks;
SELECT VendorID, [164] AS Emp1, [198] AS Emp2, [223] AS Emp3, [231] AS Emp4, [233] AS Emp5
(SELECT PurchaseOrderID, EmployeeID, VendorID
FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader) p
COUNT (PurchaseOrderID)
FOR EmployeeID IN
( [164], [198], [223], [231], [233] )
) AS pvt
Here is a partial result set:
Copy Code
VendorID Emp1 Emp2 Emp3 Emp4 Emp5
1 4 3 5 4 4
2 4 1 5 5 5
3 4 3 5 4 4
4 4 2 5 5 4
5 5 1 5 5 5
The results returned by this subselect statement are pivoted on the EmployeeID column.
Copy Code
SELECT PurchaseOrderID, EmployeeID, VendorID
FROM PurchaseOrderHeader
This means that the unique values returned by the EmployeeID column themselves become fields in the final result set. As a result, there is a column for each EmployeeID number specified in the pivot clause — in this case employees 164, 198, 223, 231, and 233. The PurchaseOrderID column serves as the value column, against which the columns returned in the final output, called the grouping columns, are grouped. In this case, the grouping columns are aggregated by the COUNT function. Note that a warning message appears indicating that any NULL values appearing in the PurchaseOrderID column were not considered when computing the COUNT for each employee.
When using aggregate functions with PIVOT, the presence of any NULL values in the value column are not considered when computing an aggregation.
UNPIVOT performs almost the reverse operation of PIVOT, by rotating columns into rows. Suppose the table produced in the example above is stored in the database as pvt, and you want to rotate the column identifiers Emp1, Emp2, Emp3, Emp4, and Emp5 into row values that correspond to a particular vendor. This means that you must identify two additional columns. The column that will contain the column values you are rotating (Emp1, Emp2,...) will be called Employee, and the column that will hold the values that currently reside under the columns being rotated will be called Orders. These columns correspond to the pivot_column and value_column, respectively, in the Transact-SQL definition. The query looks like this.
Copy Code
--Create the table and insert values as portrayed in the above example.
CREATE TABLE pvt (VendorID int, Emp1 int, Emp2 int,
Emp3 int, Emp4 int, Emp5 int)
INSERT INTO pvt VALUES (1,4,3,5,4,4)
INSERT INTO pvt VALUES (2,4,1,5,5,5)
INSERT INTO pvt VALUES (3,4,3,5,4,4)
INSERT INTO pvt VALUES (4,4,2,5,5,4)
INSERT INTO pvt VALUES (5,5,1,5,5,5)
--Unpivot the table.
SELECT VendorID, Employee, Orders
(SELECT VendorID, Emp1, Emp2, Emp3, Emp4, Emp5
FROM pvt) p
(Orders FOR Employee IN
(Emp1, Emp2, Emp3, Emp4, Emp5)
)AS unpvt
Here is a partial result set:
Copy Code
VendorID Employee Orders
1 Emp1 4
1 Emp2 3
1 Emp3 5
1 Emp4 4
1 Emp5 4
2 Emp1 4
2 Emp2 1
2 Emp3 5
2 Emp4 5
2 Emp5 5
Note that UNPIVOT is not the exact reverse of PIVOT. PIVOT performs an aggregation and hence merges possible multiple rows into a single row in the output. UNPIVOT does not reproduce the original table-valued expression result because rows have been merged. Besides, NULL values in the input of UNPIVOT disappear in the output, whereas there may have been original NULL values in the input before the PIVOT operation.

View Sales.vSalesPersonSalesByFiscalYears in the AdventureWorks sample database uses PIVOT to return the total sales for each salesperson, for each fiscal year. To script the view, locate it under the Views folder for the AdventureWorks database in the SQL Server Management Studio Object Explorer. Right click on the view name and select Script View as.


November 26, 2007

Birthday wishes in all languages

Language"Happy Birthday"
AfrikaansVeels geluk met jou verjaarsdag!
AlbanianUrime ditelindjen!
AlsatianGueter geburtsdaa!
AmharicMelkam lidet!
ArabicEid milaad saeed! or Kul sana wa inta/i tayeb/a! (masculine/feminine)
ArmenianTaredartzet shnorhavor! or Tsenund shnorhavor!
AssyrianEida D'moladukh Hawee Brikha!
Austrian-VienneseOis guade winsch i dia zum Gbuadsdog!
Aymara(Bolivia) Suma Urupnaya Cchuru Uromankja!
AzerbaijaniAd gununuz mubarek! -- for people older than you
Ad gunun mubarek! -- for people younger than you
Belauan-MicronesianUngil el cherellem!
Bengali(Bangladesh/India) Shuvo Jonmodin!
Bicol (Philippines)Maogmang Pagkamundag!
Bislama (Vanuatu)Hapi betde! or Yumi selebretem de blong bon blong yu!
BrazilParabŽns a voc !
ParabŽns a voc ,
nesta data querida muitas felicidades e muitos anos de vida.
BretonDeiz-ha-bloaz laouen deoc'h!
BulgarianChestit Rojden Den!
CambodianSom owie nek mein aryouk yrinyu!
CatalanPer molts anys! or Bon aniversari! or Moltes Felicitats!
ChamorroBiba Kumplianos!
Chinese-CantoneseSun Yat Fai Lok!
ChineseFuzhou San Ni Kuai Lo!
Chiness-HakkaSang Ngit Fai Lok!
Chinese-Mandarinqu ni sheng er kuai le
Chinese-ShanghaieseSan ruit kua lok!
Chinese-TiociuSe Jit khuai lak!
ChroniaPolla NA ZHSHS
CroatianSretan Rodendan!
CzechVsechno nejlepsi k Tvym narozeninam!!
DanishTillykke med fodselsdagen!
Dutch-AntwerpsNe gelukkege verjoardach!
Dutch-BilzersNe geleukkege verjoardoag!
Dutch-FlemishGelukkige verjaardag! or Prettige verjaardag!
Dutch-FrisianFan herte lokwinske!
Dutch-LimburgsProficiat! or Perfisia!
Dutch-SpouwersNe geleukkege verjeurdoag!
Dutch-TwentsGefeliciteard met oen'n verjoardag!
Dutch Hartelijkgefeliciteerd! or Van harte gefeliciteerd met je verjaardag!
EnglishHappy Birthday!
EsperantoFelichan Naskightagon!
EstonianPalju onne sunnipaevaks!
EuskeraZorionak zure urtebetetze egunean!
Faroes ( Faroe island )Tillukku vid fodingardegnum!
FarsiTavalodet Mobarak!
FinnishHyvaa syntymapaivaa!
French (Canada)Bonne Fete!
FrenchJoyeux Anniversaire!
FrisianLokkiche jierdei!
Gaelic (Irish)L‡ breithe mhaith agat!
Gaelic (Scottish)Co` latha breith sona dhuibh!
Galician (Spain)Ledicia no teu cumpreanos!
GeorgianGilotcav dabadebis dges!
German-BadischAllis Guedi zu dim Fescht!
German-BavarianOis Guade zu Deim Geburdstog!
German-BerlinischAllet Jute ooch zum Jeburtstach! or Ick wuensch da allet Jute zum Jeburtstach!
German-Bernese Es Muentschi zum Geburri!
German-CamelottischEwllews Gewtew zewm Gewbewrtstewg. Mew!
German-FrankonianAllmecht! Iich wuensch Dir aan guuadn Gebuardsdooch!
German-LichtensteinHaerzliche Glueckwuensche zum Geburtstag!
German-MoselfraenkischHaezzlische Glickwunsch zem Gebordsdach!
German-PlattdeutschIck wuensch Di allns Gode ton Geburtsdach!
German-RhoihessischIch gratelier Dir aach zum Geburtstag!
German-RuhrAllet Gute zum Gebuatstach!
German-SaarlaendischAlles Gudde for dei Gebordsdaach!
German-SaechsischHerzlischen Gliggwunsch zum Geburdsdaach!
German-SchwaebischAelles Guade zom Gebordzdag!
German-WienerischOis Guade zum Geburdsdog!
GermanAlles Gute zum Geburtstag!
GreekEytyxismena Genethlia! or Chronia Pola!
GreenlandicInuuinni pilluarit!
Gronings (Netherlands)Fielsteerd mit joen verjoardag!
Gujarati (India)Janma Divas Mubarak!
Gujrati (Pakistan)Saal Mubarak!
Guarani (Paraguay Indian)]Vy-Apave Nde Arambotyre!
HawaiianHau`oli la hanau!
HebrewYom Huledet Same'ach!
Hiligaynon (Philippines)Masadya gid nga adlaw sa imo pagkatawo!
Hindi (India)Janam Din ki badhai! or Janam Din ki shubkamnaayein!
HungarianBoldog szuletesnapot! or Isten eltessen!
IcelandicTil hamingju med afmaelisdaginn!
IndonesianSelamat Ulang Tahun!
Irish-gaelicLa-breithe mhaith agat! or Co` latha breith sona dhut! or Breithla Shona Dhuit!
ItalianBuon Compleanno!
Italian (Piedmont)Bun Cumpleani!
Italian (Romagna)At faz tent avguri ad bon cumplean!
JapaneseOtanjou-bi Omedetou Gozaimasu!
Javaans-IndonesiaSlamet Ulang Taunmoe!
JerriaisBouon Anniversaithe!
Kannada (India)Huttida Habba Subashayagalu!
Kapangpangan (Philippines)Mayap a Kebaitan
Kashmiri (India)Voharvod Mubarak Chuy!
Kazakh (Kazakstan)Tughan kuninmen!
KlingonQuchjaj qoSlIj!
KoreanSaeng il chuk ha ham ni da!
KurdishRojbun a te piroz be!
KyrgyzTulgan kunum menen!
LatinFortuna dies natalis!
LatvianDaudz laimes dzimsanas diena!
LithuanianSveikinu su gimtadieniu! or Geriausi linkejimaigimtadienio progal
LugandaNkwagaliza amazalibwa go amalungi!
LuxembourgeoisVill Gleck fir daei Geburtsdaag!
MacedonianSreken roden den!
Malayalam (India)Pirannal Aasamsakal! or Janmadinasamsakal!
MalaysianSelamat Hari Jadi!
MalteseNifrahlek ghal gheluq sninek!
MaoriKia huritau ki a koe!
Marathi (India)Wadhdiwasachya Shubhechha!
MauritianKreol mo swet u en bonlaniverser!
Mbula (Umboi Island, Papua New Guinea)Leleng ambai pa mbeng ku taipet i!
MongolianTorson odriin mend hurgee!
Navajobil hoozho bi'dizhchi-neeji' 'aneilkaah!
Niederdeutsch (North Germany)Ick gratuleer di scheun!
NepaliJanma dhin ko Subha kamana!
NorwegianGratulerer med dagen!
Oriya (India)Janmadina Abhinandan!
Papiamento (lower Dutch Antilles)Masha Pabien I hopi aña mas!
Pashto (Afganistan)Padayish rawaz day unbaraksha!
PersianTavalodet Mobarak!
Pinoy (Philippines)Maligayang kaarawan sa iyo!
PolishWszystkiego Najlepszego! or Wszystkiego najlepszego zokazji urodzin!
wszystkiegonajlepszego z okazji urodzin
Portuguese (Brazil)Parabens pelo seu aniversario! or Parabenspara voce! or
Parabense muitas felicidades!
PortugueseFeliz Aniversario! or Parabens!
Punjabi (India)Janam din diyan wadhayian!
Rajasthani (India)Janam ghaanth ri badhai, khoob jeeyo!
Romanian La Multi Ani!
Rosarino Basico (Argentina)Feneligiz Cunumplegeanagonos!
RussianS dniom razhdjenia! or Pazdravliayu s dniom razhdjenia!
Sami/LappishLihkos Riegadanbeaivvis!
SamoanManuia lou aso fanau!
Sanskrit (India)Ravihi janmadinam aacharati!
Sardinian (Italy)Achent'annos! Achent'annos!
Schwyzerduetsch (Swiss German)Vill Glück zum Geburri!
SerbianSrecan Rodjendan!
SlovakVsetko najlepsie k narodeninam!
SloveneVse najboljse za rojstni dan!
SothoMasego motsatsing la psalo!
SpanishFeliz Cumplea–os!
Sri LankanSuba Upan dinayak vewa!
Sundanese Wilujeng Tepang Taun!
SurinameseMi fresteri ju!
SwahiliHongera! or Heri ya Siku kuu!
SwedishGrattis pŒ fšdelsedagen
SyriacTahnyotho or brigo!
Tagalog (Philippines)Maligayang Bati Sa Iyong Kaarawan!
TaiwaneseSan leaz quiet lo!
Tamil (India)Piranda naal vaazhthukkal!
Telugu (India)Janmadina subha kankshalu!
TeluguPuttina Roju Shubakanksalu!
ThaiSuk San Wan Keut!
TibetanDroonkher Tashi Delek!
Tulu(Karnataka - India)Putudina dina saukhya!
TurkishDogum gunun kutlu olsun!
UkrainianMnohiya lita! or Z dnem narodjennia!
Urdu (India)Janam Din Mubarak
Urdu (Pakistan)Saalgirah Mubarak!
VietnameseChuc Mung Sinh Nhat!
Visayan (Philippines)Malipayong adlaw nga natawhan!
WelshPenblwydd Hapus i Chi!
Xhosa (South Afican)Imini emandi kuwe!
YiddishA Freilekhn Gebortstog!
Yoruba(Nigeria) Eku Ojobi!
Zulu (South Afican)Ilanga elimndandi kuwe!

November 24, 2007

Reading and writting from TiniFile (to persists the data)

TIniFile is a low-level wrapper for the 16-bit Windows 3.x INI file system that enables storage and retrieval of application-specific information and settings in an application-specific INI file.


TIniFile enables handling the storage and retrieval of application-specific information and settings in a Windows 3.x INI file. The INI file text format is the standard way for Windows 3.x applications to store and retrieve application settings from session to session. An INI file stores information in logical groupings, called “sections.” For example, the WIN.INI file contains a section called “[Desktop]”. Within each section, actual data values are stored in named keys. Keys take the form:


The FileName passed to a TIniFile object when it is created is the name of the INI file the object accesses.

Note: Under 32-bit Windows systems, applications typically replace INI files with the system registry where all applications store and retrieve their settings. Delphi provides additional classes for handling the system registry. TRegistry encapsulates the system registry. TRegistryIniFile also encapsulates the registry, but shares a common ancestor with TIniFile so that the same code can access entries stored in either format.


This example reads strings in the DELPHI32.INI file and displays them on the form.Before you run this example, you must add the IniFiles unit to the uses clause of your unit.

procedure TForm1.FormActivate(Sender: TObject);
var DelphiIni: TIniFile;


Canvas.TextOut(20, 10, 'VARIOUS DELPHI SETTINGS');

DelphiIni := TIniFile.Create('Delphi32.Ini');

with DelphiIni do begin

with Canvas do


TextOut(10, 50, 'Editor Font = ' + ReadString('Editor', 'FontName', 'ERROR')); TextOut(10, 70, 'Search Path = ' + ReadString('Library', 'SearchPath', 'ERROR')); TextOut(10, 90, 'Component Library = ' +
ReadString('Library', 'ComponentLibrary', 'ERROR')); TextOut(10, 110, 'VBX Directory = ' + ReadString('VBX', 'VBXDir', 'ERROR'));

TextOut(10, 130, 'VBX Unit Directory = ' + ReadString('VBX', 'UnitDir', 'ERROR')); end;





This example reads the Transfer section of the DELPHI32.INI file into a memo and changes one of the strings in the INI file when Button1 is clicked. When Button2 is clicked, the DELPHI32.INI file is restored to its initial state, using the values stored in the memo.Before you run this example, you must add the IniFiles unit to the uses clause of your unit.
Warning: Do not click button2 before you have clicked button1!

procedure TForm1.Button1Click(Sender: TObject);
var DelphiIni: TIniFile;

begin DelphiIni := TIniFile.Create('c:\windows\delphi32.ini');


DelphiIni.ReadSectionValues('Transfer', Memo1.Lines);

if Memo1.Lines.Values['Title1'] <> 'Picture Painter' then

DelphiIni.WriteString('Transfer', 'Title1', 'Picture Painter');



procedure TForm1.Button2Click(Sender: TObject);
var DelphiIni: TIniFile;

DelphiIni := TIniFile.Create('c:\windows\delphi32.ini');
{ if the entry wasn’t there before, delete it now }

if Memo1.Lines.Values['Title1'] = '' then

DelphiIni.DeleteKey('Transfer', 'Title1') { otherwise, restore the old value }


DelphiIni.WriteString('Transfer', 'Title1', Memo1.Lines.Values['Title1']);



November 19, 2007


Language Overview

Delphi is a high-level, compiled, strongly typed language that supports structured and object-oriented design.

Based on Object Pascal, its benefits include easy-to-read code, quick compilation, and the use of multiple unit files formodular programming.
Delphi has special features that support Borland's component framework and RADenvironment. For the most part, descriptions and examples in this language guide assume that you are using Borlanddevelopment tools.

Most developers using Borland software development tools write and compile their code in the integrateddevelopment environment (IDE). Borland development tools handle many details of setting up projects and sourcefiles, such as maintenance of dependency information among units. The product also places constraints on programorganization that are not, strictly speaking, part of the Object Pascal language specification. For example, Borlanddevelopment tools enforce certain file- and program-naming conventions that you can avoid if you write yourprograms outside of the IDE and compile them from the command prompt.

This language guide generally assumes that you are working in the IDE and that you are building applications thatuse the Borland Visual Component Library (VCL). Occasionally, however, Delphi-specific rules are distinguishedfrom rules that apply to all Object Pascal programming. This text covers both the Win32 Delphi language compiler,and the Delphi for .NET language compiler. Platform-specific language differences and features are noted wherenecessary.This section covers the following topics:Program Organization. Covers the basic language features that allow you to partition your application into unitsand namespaces.Example Programs. Small examples of both console and GUI applications are shown, with basic instructionson running the compiler from the command-line.Program OrganizationDelphi programs are usually divided into source-code modules called units.

Most programs begin with a programheading, which specifies a name for the program. The program heading is followed by an optional uses clause, thena block of declarations and statements. The uses clause lists units that are linked into the program; these units,which can be shared by different programs, often have uses clauses of their own.The uses clause provides the compiler with information about dependencies among modules. Because thisinformation is stored in the modules themselves, most Delphi language programs do not require makefiles, headerfiles, or preprocessor "include" directives.Delphi Source FilesThe compiler expects to find

Delphi source code in files of three kinds:Unit source files (which end with the .pas extension)Project files (which end with the .dpr extension)Package source files (which end with the .dpk extension)Unit source files typically contain most of the code in an application. Each application has a single project file andseveral unit files; the project file, which corresponds to the program file in traditional Pascal, organizes the unit filesinto an application. Borland development tools automatically maintain a project file for each application.If you are compiling a program from the command line, you can put all your source code into unit (.pas) files. If youuse the IDE to build your application, it will produce a project (.dpr) file.Package source files are similar to project files, but they are used to construct special dynamically linkable librariescalled packages.